Previous Year Questions -environmental science

1)

If you travel through the Himalayas, you are likely to see which of the following plants naturally growing there?

  1. Oak
  2. Rhododendron
  3. Sandalwood

Select the correct answer using the code given below


A) 1 and 2 only
B) 3 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

2)

Which one of the following is the process involved in photosynthesis?


A) Potential energy is released to form free energy
B) Free energy is converted into potential energy and stored
C) Food is oxidized to release carbon dioxide and water
D) Oxygen is taken, and carbon dioxide and water vapour are given out

3)

Consider the following with respect to ‘EDGE’ species.

1. These species have few close relatives and are often extremely distinct in the way they look, live and behave.

2. These unique species are also on the verge of extinction, and if they disappear there will be nothing like them left on the planet.

Select the incorrect option


A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Both
D) None

4)

What would happen if phytoplankton of an ocean is completely destroyed for some reason?

  1. The ocean as a carbon sink would be adversely affected.
  2. The food chains in the ocean would be adversely affected.
  3. The density of ocean water would drastically decrease.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :


A) 1 and 2 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

5)

With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coal bed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following ‘statements:

  1. Coal bed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
  2. In India abundant coal bed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) Both 1 and 2
D) Neither 1 nor 2

6)

1. Animal Welfare Board of India is established under the Environment(Protection) Act, 19862.

2. National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body.

3. National Ganga River Basin Authority is chaired by the Prime Minister.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?


A) 1 only
B) 2 and 3 only
C) 2 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

7)

Human activities in the recent past have caused the increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but a lot of it does not remain in the lower atmosphere because of :

  1. its escape into the outer stratosphere.
  2. the photosynthesis by phyto-plankton in the oceans.
  3. the trapping of air in the polar ice caps.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


A) 1 and 2
B) 2 only
C) 2 and 3
D) 3 only

8)

With reference to food chains in ecosystems, consider the following statements :

  1. A food chain illustrates the order in which a chain of organisms feed upon each other.
  2. Food chains are found within the populations of a species.
  3. A food chain illustrates the numbers of each organism which are eaten by others.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?


A) 1 only
B) 1 and 2 only
C) 1, 2 and 3
D) None

9)

Which among the following are ‘Nocturnal’ in nature?

1. Bat

2. Catfish

3. Kiwi

4. Koala


A) 1,2 and 3
B) 1,3 and 4
C) 1,2,3 and 4
D) Only 1

10)

Consider the statements with reference to ‘Blue Carbon’

(a) It is carbon stored in coastal, terrestrial and marine ecosystem

(b) The Blue Carbon Initiative currently focuses on carbon in coastal and terrestrial ecosystems – mangroves, tidal marshes, sea grasses and forests

(c) The rates of blue carbon sequestration and storage capacities in ecosystems are comparable to (and often higher than) those in carbon-rich terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical rainforests and peatlands.

Correct code/s


A) Only 1
B) Only 3
C) 2 and 3
D) 1,2 and 3

11)

In India, cluster bean (Guar) is traditionally used as a vegetable or animal feed, but recently the cultivation of this has assumed significance. Which one of the following statements is correct in this context?


A) The oil extracted from seeds is used in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics
B) The gum made from its seeds is used in the extraction of shale gas
C) The leaf extract of this plant has the properties of anti-histamines
D) It is a source of high quality biodiesel

12)

Every year, a month long ecologically important campaign/festival is held during which certain communities/ tribes plant saplings of fruit-bearing trees. Which of the following are such communities/tribes?


A) Bhutia and Lepcha
B) Gond and Korku
C) lrula and Toda
D) Sahariya and Agariya

13)

If you walk through countryside, you are likely to see some birds stalking alongside the cattle to seize the insects, disturbed by their movement through grasses, Which of the following is/are such bird/birds?

  1. Painted Stork
  2. Common Myna
  3. Black-necked Crane

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


A) 1 and 2
B) 2 only
C) 2 and 3
D) 3 only

14)

Wetland locations

Wetlands Confluence of rivers

  1. Harike wetland Beas and Satluj
  2. Keolado Ganga National Park Banas and Chambal
  3. Kolleru Lake Musi and Krishna

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?


A) 1 only
B) 2 and 3 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

15)

Consider the following:

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. Oxides of Nitrogen
  3. Oxides of Sulphur

Which of the above is/are the emission/ emissions from coal combustion at thermal power plants?


A) 1 only
B) 2 and 3 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

16)

With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?


A) It serves as financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.
B) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at global level
C) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with specific aim to protect their environment. 4. Both (a) and (b) Answer: 1
D) Both (a) and (b)

17)

The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole?


A) Presence of prominent tropo-spheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
B) Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric’ clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
C) Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons
D) Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming

18)

Three of the following criteria have contributed to the recognition of Western Ghats-Sri Lanka and Indo-Burma regions as hotspots of biodiversity:

  1. Species richness
  2. Vegetation density
  3. Endemism
  4. Ethno-botanical importance
  5. Threat perception
  6. Adaptation of flora and fauna to warm and humid conditions

Which three of the above are correct criteria in this context?


A) 1, 2 and 6
B) 2, 4 and 6
C) 1, 3 and 5
D) 3, 4 and 6

19)

If a wetland of international importance is brought under the ‘Montreux Record’, what does it imply?


A) Changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur in the wetland as a result of human interference.
B) The country in which the wetland is located should enact a law to prohibit any human activity within five kilo meters from the edge of the wetland
C) The survival of the wetland depends on the cultural practices and traditions of certain communities living in its vicinity and therefore the cultural diversity therein should not be destroyed
D) It is given the status of ‘World Heritage Site’

20)

Government of India encourages the cultivation of ‘sea buckthorn’. What is the importance of this plant?

  1. It helps in controlling soil erosion and in preventing desertification.
  2. It is a rich source of biodiesel.
  3. It has nutritional value and is well-adapted to live in cold areas of high altitudes.
  4. Its timber is of great commercial value.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?


A) 1 only
B) 2, 3 and 4 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

21)

Rhodiola has been a significant herb of research interests among the scientist all over the world. Consider the statements w.r.t Rhodiola1. It is approved by FDA to cure, treat or prevent disease
2. It has proved significance as anti-depressant

3. It has immunomodulatory, adaptogenic and radio-protecting abilities.

4. The leafy part can be used as vegetables

5. It is found in cold regions only

Which of the following statements is /are correct


A) 1, 2,3 and 5
B) 1, 3 and 4
C) 2,3,4 and 5
D) 1, 2 and 3

22)

In the Union Budget 2011-12, a full exemption from the basic customs duty was extended to the bio-based asphalt (bioasphalt). What is the importance of this material?

  1. Unlike traditional asphalt, bio-asphalt is not based on fossil fuels.
  2. Bioasphalt can be made from non-renewable resources.
  3. Bioasphalt can be made from organic waste materials.
  4. It is eco-friendly to use bioasphalt for surfacing of the roads.

Which of the statements given above are correct?


A) 1, 2 and 3 only
B) 1, 3 and 4 only
C) 2 and 4 only
D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

23)

Brominated flame retardants are used in many household products like mattresses and upholstery. Why is there some concern about their use?

  1. They are highly resistant to degradation in the environment.
  2. They are able to accumulate in humans and animals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) Both 1 and 2
D) Neither 1 nor 2

24)

With reference to ‘Eco-Sensitive Zones’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Eco-Sensitive Zones are the areas that are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  2. The purpose of the declaration of Eco-Sensitive Zones is to prohibit all kinds of human activities, in those zones except agriculture.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) Both 1 and 2
D) Neither 1 nor 2

25)

With reference to’ Green Climate Fund’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

a) It will support projects, programmes, policies and other activities wrt climate change in all developing countries.

(b) Severely affected countries are eligible to receive resources from GCF

(c) GCF board comprises of members from all the countries party to UNFCCC


A) a and b
B) b and c
C) a,b and c
D) None

26)

Lichens, which are capable of initiating ecological succession even on a bare rock, are actually a symbiotic association of


A) algae and bacteria
B) algae and fungi
C) bacteria and fungi
D) fungi and mosses

27)

There is some concern regarding the nanoparticles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?

  1. They can accumulate in the environment, and contaminate water and soil.
  2. They can enter the food chains.
  3. They can trigger the production of free radicals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


A) 1 and 2 only
B) 3 only
C) 1 and 3 only
D) 1, 2 and 3

28)

The Himalayan Range is very rich in species diversity. Which one among the following is the most appropriate reason for this phenomenon?


A) It has a high rainfall that supports luxuriant vegetative growth
B) It is a confluence of different bio-geographical zones
C) Exotic and invasive species have not been introduced in this region
D) It has less human interference

29)

A particular State in India has the following characteristics :

  1. It is located on the same latitude which passes through northern Rajasthan.
  2. It has over 80% of its area under forest cover.
  3. Over 12% of forest cover constitutes Protected Area Network in this State.

Which one among the following States has all the above characteristics?


A) Arunachal Pradesh
B) Assam
C) Himachal Pradesh
D) Uttarakhand

30)

With reference to a conservation organization called Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
  2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge, and use the practical experience to advocate for better policies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) Both 1 and 2
D) Neither 1 nor 2